Ms. Liu, 24, wanted to have her jaw broken and restructured to get a V-shaped face. Dr. KimTae-gyu at Braun Plastic Surgery suggested something less drastic. “But look! I have hugebones, I need to do it,” Ms. Liu protested. They settled on removing several millimeters of bonrom her chin and cheekbones. Her friends, Wu Haiyan, 26, and Jin Meilan, 25, considered nosejobs.
24歲的劉麗萍想要削骨，做成V字臉。布勞恩整形醫院(Braun Plastic Surgery)的金泰奎醫生(Kim Tae-gyu，音)建議她做一些不那么巨大的改動。劉麗萍抗議道，“看看!我的骨頭好大，我需要削骨?！彼麄兩潭ê冒阉掳图饧帮E骨上的骨頭去掉幾毫米。她的朋友——26歲的吳海燕(音)和25歲的金美蘭(音)考慮做鼻子。
Cosmetic surgery, pervasive in South Korea, is now the must-do activity for many Chinesevisitors.
The lights stay on all night in the Gangnam district, where plastic surgery clinics line thestreets. Signs in Chinese beckon visitors. Once they are inside, translators stand ready.
Seizing an opportunity to tap the steady and ubiquitous flow of China’s newly rich who aretraveling overseas, South Korea’s government is promoting the country as a place to shop, eat,stay — and perhaps get a nip and a tuck.
And the Chinese, mainly women, are visiting in droves for body modifications, from the minor,like double eyelid surgery, to the extreme, like facial restructuring. While plastic surgery iscommon in China, South Korean hospitals are perceived to be safer and more hygienic, albeitpricier.
“When the Chinese come to the stores, they empty them,” said Kim Soo-jin, a representativeat the medical tourism unit of the Korean tourism office. “If we can turn them into medicaltourists, they are more likely to stay longer. They will eat one more meal, buy one more thingand go to another site.”
The South Korean government is setting aside as much as $4 million a year to help promotethe medical tourism industry, which is dominated by plastic surgeons. It expects one millionmedical tourists a year by 2020, up from 211,218 last year, with Chinese travelers representingthe largest segment.
Tour operators sell travel deals that include shopping, sightseeing and plastic surgery. Premierpackages include a stretch limo for the ride from the hotel to the clinic. Licensed brokers take acut of the total surgery costs, up to 35 percent.
While prices for tourists vary widely, a basic double eyelid surgery can cost more than $900. Aplastic surgery trip, with hotel and other activities, can run around $15,000. In general, it ismore expensive than in China.
“I’ve seen them coming in with bags of money,” said Dr. Ro Young-woo, a founding partner ofa South Korean franchise chain of clinics called Oracle Clinic.
韓國整容診所連鎖機構奧拉克診所(Oracle Clinic)的創始合伙人盧永宇(Ro Young-woo，音)說，“我看到他們拿著成袋的現金來診所?！?/p>
Popular culture has had an influence. Korean television shows and movies are wildly successfulin China. Patients often take magazine photos to their consultations.
“We see more assertiveness in Chinese patients than Korean patients,” Dr. Kim Eung-sam, aplastic surgeon and director at the Hershe clinic in Seoul. “They want to look like certainKorean celebrities.”
During their trip, Ms. Liu, Ms. Wu and Ms. Jin planned to see the sights featured in their favoriteKorean TV show, “My Love From the Star.” They bought clothes like those worn by the show’sfemale star, Jeon Ji-hyun. Ms. Jin asked for the same nose as another famous Korean actress,Han Ga-in.
在旅行過程中，劉麗萍、吳海燕和金美蘭計劃游覽她們最喜歡的電視劇《來自星星的你》中出現過的景觀。她們購買了與劇中女主角全智賢(Jeon Ji-hyun)所穿服裝類似的衣服。金美蘭還要求做另一位韓國著名女星韓佳人(Han Ga-in)式的鼻子。
South Korea is building on a tradition of cosmetic surgery. A recent study by the InternationalSociety of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery estimated that South Korea had the highest rate ofcosmetic surgery per capita of any country in the world. Seoul TouchUp, a government-approved medical tourism agency, states in its marketing materials that “Korean women arearguably more objectified by their male counterparts than any other women in the world.”
韓國依靠的是整容傳統。國際美容整形外科學會(International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery)最近的一份研究顯示，韓國是全球人均整容手術率最高的國家。有政府認可資質的醫療旅游機構塔琪雅(SeoulTouchUp)在推廣材料中寫道，“韓國女人被當地男人物化的程度，無疑要比世界上任何其他地方的女人都要高?！?/p>
“In terms of advertising it’s very much exaggerated,” says Dr. Cha Sang-myun, the chairmanof the Korean Association of Plastic Surgeons, which is calling for tighter industry regulations. “You see it everywhere: on the subways, on the buses and even in the movie theaters.”
“廣告方面是非?？鋸埖?，”韓國整形外科醫生協會(Korean Association of Plastic Surgeons)主席車尚勉(Cha Sang-myun)說?！暗教幎寄芸吹剑旱罔F、公車，甚至電影院?！?/p>
It has also become an attainable commodity for Chinese, particularly for young women who seeplastic surgery as a way to enhance their personal or professional prospects.
“I did it now because I thought it would be harder to do later on,” said Wang Yue, a soft-spoken woman from Beijing who spoke days after a double eyelid procedure, a nose implantand facial contouring.
Ms. Wang, 24, said most of her friends had some form of plastic surgery “because we want tobe more beautiful.” She rattled off the benits, like the chances of making more money.
Besides, she added, “I think I’ll look better in different clothes.”
Some Korean doctors are voicing concern. The flood of demand has spawned a cluster ofunlicensed hospitals, brokers and unqualified doctors, according to Dr. Cha of the plasticsurgeon association. “If there are 10 plastic surgeons out there, there are another 100 whoare not qualified,” he said.
And the procedures that many Chinese tourists seek come with the highest rate ofcomplications. Some undergo several procedures at once. Dr. Kim at Braun described how onerecent patient booked a series of surgeries — double jaw, facial contour, nose job, doubleeyelid, liposuction and a fat graft.
One of the most popular procedures is facial contouring, which involves altering the shape ofthe face by shaving and removing bone from the cheeks, jaw and chin. Double jaw surgery isa more radical and popular version that requires realigning the top and bottom jaws.
Chinese patients undergo these painful surgeries to alter their faces into a V-shape, givingthem highly coveted delicate features. They are also popular among Korean men and women.
“I think they have gone totally overboard,” said Dr. Walter Peters, a professor of surgery atthe University of Toronto. Radical jaw surgery in the United States and Canada, he added, “could sometimes be done for cosmetic reasons but it is usually done for developmental orpost-traumatic reasons.”
“我認為他們完全著了迷，”多倫多大學(University of Toronto)外科手術教授沃爾特·彼得斯(Walter Peters)說。他還說，在美國和加拿大，大幅矯正下巴的手術“有時的確是為了美容，但通常是因為發育不良或者受過創傷”。
Ms. Jin had already had her nose done once in China. “The more I do it, the more I becomeinterested in it,” she said.
“Many friends around me have gone under the knife,” she added. “Since my friends havebecome more beautiful, I think I should become more beautiful.”